Opinion No. 2018-070

May 23, 2018

Randall Bynum, Esq.
Dover Dixon Horne PLLC
425 West Capitol Avenue, Suite 3700
Little Rock, AR 72201-3465

Dear Mr. Bynum:

I am writing in response to your request for certification, pursuant to Ark. Code Ann. § 7-9-107 (Supp. 2017), of the popular name and ballot title for a proposed initiated measure.

At the outset, I wish to make clear to you that the decision to certify or reject a popular name and ballot title is in no way a reflection of my view of the merits of a particular proposal. I am not authorized to, and I do not, consider the merits of the measure when making a decision to certify or reject.

Arkansas Code Annotated § 7-9-107 authorizes my office to 1) certify the popular name and ballot title of a proposed measure, 2) substitute and certify the popular name and ballot title, if practicable, or 3) reject the entire submission if “the ballot title, or the nature of the issue, is presented in such manner that the ballot title would be misleading” to voters.[1] The purpose of my review under section 7-9-107 is to ensure that the popular name and ballot title honestly, intelligibly, and fairly set forth the purpose of the proposed amendment or act.[2] In this way, voters will have a fair understanding of the issues presented by reference to the ballot title alone.[3]
Section 7-9-107 neither requires nor authorizes this office to make legal determinations concerning the merits of the proposed act or amendment, or concerning the likelihood that it will accomplish its stated objective. In addition, consistent with Arkansas Supreme Court precedent, unless the measure is “clearly contrary to law,”[4] this office will not require that a measure’s proponents acknowledge in the ballot title any possible constitutional infirmities.[5] Consequently, this review has been limited primarily to a determination, pursuant to the guidelines that have been set forth by the Arkansas Supreme Court, discussed below, of whether the popular name and ballot title you have submitted accurately and impartially summarize the provisions of your proposal.


You have requested certification, pursuant to Ark. Code Ann. § 7-9-107, of the following popular name and ballot title for a proposed constitutional amendment:

Popular Name

An Amendment to Allow Four Casinos to Operate in Arkansas, One Each in the Following Counties: Benton County, Operated by Benton County Gaming, LLC; Boone County, Operated by Arkansas Gaming and Resorts, LLC; Miller County, Operated by Miller County Gaming LLC; and Pulaski County, Operated by Pulaski County Gaming, LLC

Ballot Title

An amendment to the Arkansas Constitution authorizing four casinos to operate in Arkansas, one in Benton County, operated by Benton County Gaming, LLC, an Arkansas Limited Liability Company, one in Boone County, Arkansas, operated by Arkansas Gaming and Resorts, LLC, an Arkansas Limited Liability Company, one in Miller County, Arkansas, operated by Miller County Gaming, LLC, an Arkansas Limited Liability Company, and one in Pulaski County, Arkansas, operated by Pulaski County Gaming, LLC, an Arkansas Limited Liability Company, all being subject to the laws enacted by the General Assembly in accord with this amendment and regulations promulgated by the Arkansas Gaming Commission in accord with laws enacted by the General Assembly; defining casino gaming and gaming as dealing, operating, carrying on, conducting, maintaining, or exposing for play any game played with cards, dice, equipment, or any mechanical, electromechanical, or electronic device or machine for money, property, checks, credit, or any representative value, as well as accepting wagers on sporting events or other events, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any game, device, or type of wagering permitted at a casino operated within any one or more of the States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, Oklahoma, Tennessee, or Texas as of November 6, 2018, or as subsequently permitted thereafter; creating the Arkansas Gaming Commission to regulate casinos in accord with laws enacted by the General Assembly, with the Arkansas Gaming Commission comprised of five (5) commissioners, each appointed by the Governor for staggered 5-year terms; providing for the General Assembly to appropriate monies to or for the use of the Arkansas Gaming Commission; requiring each casino to pay to the Arkansas State Treasury as general revenues a net casino gaming receipts tax equal to eighteen percent (18%) of its annual net casino gaming receipts; requiring each casino to pay to the county in which the casino is located a net casino gaming receipts tax equal to one-half of one percent (0.5%) of its annual net casino gaming receipts; requiring each casino to pay to the city or town in which the casino is located a net casino gaming receipts tax equal to one and one-half percent (1.5%) of its annual net casino gaming receipts; defining annual net casino gaming receipts as gross receipts for a 12-month period from casino gaming less amounts paid out or reserved as winnings to casino patrons for that 12-month period; subjecting each casino to the same income, property, sales, use, employment and other taxation as any for-profit business located in the county and city or town in which the casino is located, except that the Arkansas Gross Receipts Act of 1941 and local gross receipts taxes shall not apply to casino gaming receipts; allowing a casino to operate any day for any portion or all of any day; allowing the selling or complimentary serving of alcoholic beverages in casinos during all hours the casino operates but otherwise subject to all applicable Arkansas laws involving the distribution and sale of alcohol; permitting the shipment into Benton, Boone, Miller and Pulaski counties in Arkansas of gambling devices shipped and delivered in accordance with applicable federal law (15 USC§§ 1171-1178 and amendments and replacements thereto); rendering the provisions of this amendment severable; declaring inapplicable all constitutional provisions and laws to the extent they conflict with this amendment, but not otherwise repealing, superseding, amending, or otherwise affecting Amendment 84 (bingo or raffles) or Amendment 87 (state lottery) to the Arkansas Constitution, or Arkansas Act 1151 of 2005 (Electronic Games of Skill).


The popular name is primarily a useful legislative device.[6] It need not contain detailed information or include exceptions that might be required of a ballot title, but it must not be misleading or give partisan coloring to the merit of the proposal.[7] The popular name is to be considered together with the ballot title in determining the ballot title’s sufficiency.[8]

“It has long been regarded as axiomatic that the majority of voters, when called upon to vote for or against a proposed measure, will derive their information about its contents from an inspection of the ballot title immediately before exercising the right of suffrage.”[9] Accordingly, the ballot title must include an impartial summary of the proposed amendment or act that will give the voter a fair understanding of the issues presented.[10] According to the Court, a ballot title will not be legally sufficient unless it “adequately inform[s]” the voters of the contents of a proposed amendment or act so that they can make a “reasoned decision in the voting booth.”[11] A ballot title’s failure to “honestly and accurately reflect what is contained in the proposed [act or] Amendment” may lead the Court to conclude that the “omission is significant.”[12] The Court has also disapproved the use of terms that are “technical and not readily understood by voters.”[13] Without a definition of such terms in the ballot title, the title may be deemed insufficient.[14]

Additionally, if information omitted from the ballot title is an “essential fact which would give the voter serious ground for reflection, it must be disclosed.”[15] At the same time, however, a ballot title must be brief and concise;[16] otherwise voters could run afoul of the statutory five-minute limit in voting booths[17] when other voters are waiting in line.[18] The ballot title is not required to be perfect, nor is it reasonable to expect the title to cover or anticipate every possible legal argument the proposed measure might evoke.[19] The title, however, must be “free of any misleading tendency whether by amplification, omission, or fallacy, and it must not be tinged with partisan coloring.”[20] The ballot title must be honest and impartial,[21] and it must convey an intelligible idea of the scope and significance of a proposed change in the law.[22]

Furthermore, the Court has confirmed that a ballot title cannot be approved if the text of the proposed measure itself contributes to confusion and disconnect between the language in the popular name and the ballot title and the language in the measure.[23] The Court concluded that “internal inconsistencies would inevitably lead to confusion in drafting a popular name and ballot title and to confusion in the ballot title itself.”[24]


Your proposed popular name and ballot title are certified as submitted. I believe a cautionary note is warranted, however, due to the significance of the subject matter undertaken—taxation and legalized gaming—and the complexity and far-reaching effects of this proposal. Experience has shown that there is a correlation between the length and complexity of initiated measures and their susceptibility to a successful ballot title challenge. Any ambiguity in the text of a measure could lead to a successful challenge.

Pursuant to Ark. Code Ann. § 7-9-108, instructions to canvassers and signers must precede every petition, informing them of the privileges granted by the Arkansas Constitution and of the associated penalties for violations. Enclosed herewith are instructions that should be incorporated in your petition prior to circulation.


Leslie Rutledge
Attorney General

[1]Ark. Code Ann. § 7-9-107(c) (Supp. 2017).
[2]See Arkansas Women’s Political Caucus v. Riviere, 283 Ark. 463, 466, 677 S.W.2d 846, 848 (1948).
[3]Becker v. Riviere, 270 Ark. 219, 226, 604 S.W.2d 555, 558 (1980) (internal citations omitted).
[4]See Kurrus v. Priest, 342 Ark. 434, 445, 29 S.W.3d 669, 675 (2000); Donovan v. Priest, 326 Ark. 353, 359, 931 S.W.2d 119, 121 (1996); Plugge v. McCuen, 310 Ark. 654, 841 S.W.2d 139 (1992).
[5]As part of my review, however, I may address constitutional concerns for consideration by the measure’s proponents.
[6]Pafford v. Hall, 217 Ark. 734, 739, 233 S.W.2d 72, 75 (1950).
[7]See, e.g., Chaney v. Bryant, 259 Ark. 294, 297, 532 S.W.2d 741, 743 (1976); Moore v. Hall, 229 Ark. 411, 316 S.W.2d 207 (1958). For a better understanding of the term “partisan coloring,” see infra note 20.
[8]May v. Daniels, 359 Ark. 100, 105, 194 S.W.3d 771, 776 (2004).
[9]Wilson v. Martin, 2016 Ark. 334, *7, 500 S.W.3d 160, 166 (citing Christian Civic Action Committee v. McCuen, 318 Ark. 241, 884 S.W.2d 605 (1994)).
[10]Becker v. Riviere, 270 Ark. 219, 226, 604 S.W.2d 555, 558 (1980) (internal citations omitted).
[11]Lange v. Martin, 2016 Ark. 337, 500 S.W.3d 154, at n. 2.
[12]Id. at *9, 500 S.W.3d at 159.
[13]Wilson, 2016 Ark. 334 at *9, 500 S.W.3d at 167 (stating that “voters [should not] be placed in a position of either having to be an expert in the subject or having to guess as to the effect his or her vote would have”).
[14]Id., 500 S.W.3d at 167.
[15]Bailey v. McCuen, 318 Ark. 277, 285, 884 S.W.2d 938, 942 (1994).
[16]See Ark. Code Ann. § 7-9-107(b).
[17]Ark Code Ann. § 7-5-309 (Supp. 2017).
[18]Bailey, 318 Ark. at 284, 884 S.W.2d at 944.
[19]Id. at 293, 884 S.W.2d at 946-47.
[20]Id. at 284, 884 S.W.2d at 942. Language “tinged with partisan coloring” has been identified by the Arkansas Supreme Court as language that “creates a fatally misleading tendency” (Crochet v. Priest, 326 Ark. 338, 347, 931 S.W.2d 128, 133 (1996)) or that “gives the voter only the impression that the proponents of the proposed amendment wish to convey of the activity represented by the words.” Christian Civic Action Committee, 318 Ark. at 249, 884 S.W.2d at 610.
[21]Becker v. McCuen, 303 Ark. 482, 489, 798 S.W.2d 71, 74 (1990).
[22]Christian Civic Action Committee, 318 Ark. at 245, 884 S.W.2d at 607 (internal quotations omitted).
[23]Roberts v. Priest, 341 Ark. 813, 825, 20 S.W.3d 376, 382 (2000).